However, the accurate simulation of reactive transport represents a formidable challenge because of the characteristics of flow, transport and chemical reactions that govern the migration of solutes in geological formations. A second alternative consists in using a hybrid approach Obi and Blunt, The choice of those parameters is not trivial, particularly in multidimensional simulations, and requires some trial and error. The integral interpolation in 2. Res, 42 , 1—17, When particles are uniformly distributed the leading error term is due to the interpolation er- ror and is controlled by the kernel smoothing length that sets the spatial resolution. As particles become disordered the error increases for any value of h.
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Solute concentrations are estimated by averaging the mass contained in the particles 12 found in some specified volume. In the simulations presented below, we selected those parameters using the following steps: Although, approximations for longitudinal dispersion along individual streamlines are straightforward, transverse mixing between streamlines is more difficult to simulate.
Spreading is defined as the stretching of the plume and can be measured as the rate of change of the second central spatial moment.
Local errors can be made negligible by choosing an appropriate combination of total number of particles and kernel smoothing length to obtain larger average number of particles that effectively contribute to the numerical integration, e.
Lichtner, Reactive transport modeling: First, the derivation of a new meshless approximation based on smoothed sdr hydrodynamics SPH to simulate conservative multidimensional solute transport, including advection and anisotropic dispersion, is presented.
Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Possible mitigation actions include: The earlier arrival time is due to the lateral mixing produced by the numerical dispersion, which transfers solute concentration from faster plume fingers that pass close to point P1.
Fig- ure shows a small part of the simulated solute plume in Section 2. First, second order derivatives can be easily evaluated by differentiating 2. Tripathi, A critical evaluation adt recent developments in hydrogeochem- ical transport models of reactive multichemical components, Water Resour.
We motivate the discussion about the stability of explicit schemes by writing the first-order explicit approximation of 2. The third alternative combines the advantages of the other two because it is very easy to implement and requires fewer particles than the first option.
Blunt, Streamline-based simulation of solute transport,Water Resour. Next, we must set the number of particles that represent a given mass to compute the equivalent particle distribution. Therefore, most of the values presented in 8 Table 1. Finally, high-order multidimensional mesh-based solvers for advection are usually im- plemented using explicit schemes Steefel aadr MacQuarrie, The standard SPH approximation for diffusion Cleary and Monaghan, can only be used to simulate isotropic dispersion.
Examples of high-order schemes are flux-corrected transport Ad methods Boris and Book, ; Zalesak,which combine high- and low- order schemes; and total variation diminishing TVD schemes Harten and Lax; Yee et al.
As we describe next, in SPH methods the concentration field is represented fw5100 a set of particles that carry concentration information and are distributed through the domain — even in areas where solute concentration is zero. Dis- persive transport of bromide and nickel, Water Resour.
Roger Beckie, who gave me freedom and constant encouragement to pursue my research interests.
Local-scale dispersion that occurs at scales much smaller than the REV, is modeled as a Aer solute mass transfer process between particles. Grid or mesh-based methods such as finite difference, finite volume or finite element meth- ods are relatively easy to implement, rq5100 convergence, stability and accuracy properties are well understood, and it is possible to develop formulations that are mass conserva- tive.
Blunt, Streamline-based dual-porosity simulation of reactive trans- port and flow in fractured reservoirs, Water Resour. Although, the increasingly availability of high-performance computers has made feasible detailed simulations of reactive transport in two- and three-dimensional domains e.
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Conservative solute transport is typically modeled using the advection-dispersion equation ADE. Solutions given by the three methods are very different. Although possible, implicit schemes are seldom used because of compu- tational overhead. Appendix A presents the derivation of 2. An explicit implementation of the proposed meshless method as discussed in Section 2. Native memory allocation mmap failed to map bytes for committing reserved memory. Nevertheless, we believe that the results presented next constitute a fair comparison of both methods.